Written by Ben Russell
Non-Christians will state that the Bible is not true because the Bible makes arguments or propositional claims that are logically fallacious. After examining scripture and the non-Christian worldviews they fail to justify the ability to understand logic or most foundationally the laws of logic which every logical fallacy depends on. The Christian worldview justifies laws of logic that unbelievers use in order to deny the truth of Christianity.
Laws of logic govern the entire universe. They are used in rational thought or reasoning. Every person uses them daily. The law of non contradiction and law of identity are two of the major laws. They are a reflection of how God thinks (Titus 1:2; John 1:3).
According to the law of non contradiction a claim must be true or not true in only a singular case and manner. An example would be the rock can’t be fully in the grass and not in the grass at the same time and way. The law of identity confirms that every property of everything must be itself or not itself in only a singular case and manner. An example would be a rock is a rock and is only a rock.
There are many unjustified explanations why there are laws of logic. Here are a few:
Laws of logic are a property of the universe.
If they were a property of the universe they should change over time because the universe changes over time.
Laws of logic are man made.
If they are man made people could adapt different laws of logic in different societies. Secondly, before man existed the universe could exists and not exists at the same time and way which is contradictory.
There are no laws of logic
Since laws of logic don’t necessarily apply contradictions are possible, in this case they are not possible because contradictions are now allowed. Laws of logic are always used even in denying them. This is self refuting.
Laws of logic are a reflection of how the human brain operates and thinks.
If this is the case people would have different laws of logic because everybody thinks differently. Secondly they would not be universal since they wouldn’t extend beyond your head.
What exactly is a logical fallacy will depend on a person’s worldview. A Hindu might confirm there are no logical fallacies because everything is an illusion. A Christian and anti-theist in general may confirm logical fallacies can occur because they both agree logic exists. Some may have an unpopular worldview and state everything is logically fallacious and there is no valid or sound reasoning. Regardless of worldviews, they are important to understand they can be subjective. They may not absolutely apply in every argument or propositional statement because every person’s presuppositions and worldviews are different. Here is an example that atheistic people may consider a loaded question fallacy but Christians may not. A loaded question occurs when a personal presupposition is presented in a question that the opposing person may find false or emotionally bias.
“Have you repented of you’re sins?”
In the Christian worldview everybody has sinned (Romans 3:23). In an atheistic worldview this may be considered a loaded question or bias. An unbeliever would want this divided and asked this way.
“Have I sinned? If so, have I repented?”
This form of the question may be similar to the previous, but might appear less bias or emotional appealing to an unbeliever because it doesn’t assume sin has been committed. Unbelievers deny the concept of sin because they profess unbelief in God, although scripture confirms everybody knows God exists (Romans 1:18-21). Recall that laws of logic are necessary for logical fallacies to occur or to even exists. Atheistic worldviews currently fail to justify why laws of logic exists. When unbelievers accuse the Bible of containing logical fallacies or contradictions, they are being inconsistent for lack of accountability of laws of logic in foundation.
Tu Quoque – Occurs when the claim presented is false because its either impossible to be consistent with the claim. An appeal to hypocrisy.
Christians struggle with sin (1 John 3:9) but proclaim everybody needs to repent from sin. Since they cannot live up to what they state, Christianity must not be true. Simply because a person can’t live up to their worldview does not determine the truth value of it.
Genetic Fallacy – Occurs when the claim presented is false because of the original source was in error or proven false.
Christianity is confirmed to be a “copy cat” religion. There are other gods, devils, angels, people, or other beings that had a virgin birth, savior died on the cross, performed miracle, among other events that were documented before Christianity ever occurred or the Jewish Old Testament. Granting hypothetically Christianity stole ideas from other religions, it does not determine its truth value.
Special Pleading – Occurs when a law or rule applies to every claim except for a specific claim being excused which the law or rule does not apply because it has a certain property making it unique.
Unbelievers will confirm Christianity doesn’t have justification because Christians do not have an explanation for confirming how God has revealed Himself to everybody foundationally. This is fallacious because this actually IS the case regardless of the lack of knowledge Christians have in how God does anything.
The Hitler Card – Occurs when a claim must be false because the claim was associated or was related to Hitler or Nazism.
Christianity must not be true because Hitler was a professed Christian. Granting this is hypothetically true and assuming a standard of goodness, a person who does morally wrong and proclaims a worldview does not determine the truth value of a worldview. Hitler couldn’t been a Christian biblically at least for the majority of His reign murdering Jews because he willingly sinned and murdered (1 John 3:10) but God may have granted Him repentance during the last minute of his life.
Last Man Standing – Occurs when a position is proclaimed to be true because of its accountability or justification while there could be several explanations.
Simply because Christianity accounts for laws of logic, they don’t justify Christianity being true. Christianity is justified and true because God has revealed Himself to everyone. Laws of logic just further confirm God’s revealing power and nature. Granting there are other religious or atheistic worldviews that can account for laws of logic they don’t determine the truth value of the worldview.
Begging the Question – Occurs when a proposition is true because the proposition used to justify is a restating of the original proposition. Circular reasoning.
Unbelievers will confirm Christianity isn’t proved because its viciously circular to confirm God has revealed Himself to everybody because this happens to be the case. This fallacy is avoided because this actually IS the case as stated previously.
Its also important to understand everybody uses a form of circularity within their worldview. Let any knowledge claim be represented by letters. You know “a” to be true because of “b.” How do you know “b” is true? Its true because of “c.” Whatever your final answer is must prove itself out. God uses circularity since He is His own highest authority (Hebrews 6:13).
Appeal to Authority – Occurs that a claim is true or false because an expert proclaims its truth value.
Christians appeal to the Bible as their standard for truth in everything (2 Corinthians 10:5). Recall that God is infinite in knowledge. Since people are very limited in knowledge and have errors in reasoning this is not fallacious since God is always truthful and correct.
Bifurcation – Occurs when the claim assumes there are only two possibilities being true while there could be three or more.
Jesus confirmed you are either for me or against me (Matthew 12:30). Unbelievers confirm they are neither for or against a person that they do not believe exists or has any unique importance. Since God has revealed Himself to everyone, the unbeliever is without excuse for being against the Son.
Affirming the Consequent – Occurs that a hypothetical proposition is true because the following proposition is being confirmed (if a, then b, b, hence a).
Since Christianity justifies laws of logic, unbelievers may deny them and confirm there could be a secondary explanation, but since there is no current justification for these concepts this is not fallacious for Christianity. Recall laws of logic don’t necessarily prove Christianity but simply confirms it. God is also not hypothetical in any sense as well but a God of certainty (Acts 2:36).
Affirming a Disjunct – Occurs that a proposition is either true or false and that its alternative must not be true or false depending on the truth of the original proposition (a or b, a, hence not -b).
This fallacy doesn’t necessarily occur with unbelievers, but theistic evolutionist. Some will claim that evolution as in molecules to man (macro) is consistent with biblical Christianity. Although a person can be a Christian and believe in evolution (Romans 10:9; 1 John 4:15) they are not consistent with their theological worldview because scripture confirms God created after kinds (Genesis 1:24-26) and not kinds to produce different kinds.
Dr. Jason Lisle (PH.D Astrophysics) has a book on logical fallacies in more detail here.
S. Morris Engel also has a book on informal logical fallacies in more detail here. Currently at very low prices used.
Find out how knowledge is only justified in the Christian worldview here.